A fracture is the loss of normal continuity of the bone or cartilaginous substance. The fracture is a discontinuity in the bones, as a result of blows, forces or tractions whose intensities exceed the elasticity of the bone. The main mechanical function of the bone is current as support structure and transmit the load.
Fractures can be classified as:
- Epiphyseal (juxtaarticular spongy tissue)
- Diaphyseal (area furthest from the joint)
- Metaphyseal (transition zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis).
Fractures can be: open if the fracture site communicates with the outside (it is more predisposed to infections through the entrance of microorganisms) or closed if it associates wounds in the skin.
The most common symptoms are pain with deformity and functional impotence that prevents the mobilization of the affected end that can associate ecchymosis, bone crepitus and occasionally can associate neurovascular injuries.
The most frequent fractures are:
- Distal radius fracture (wrist)
- Ankle fracture
- Hip fracture
- Fracture of proximal humerus (shoulder)
- Fracture around the prostheses (periprosthetic)